23 April 2015

Why was NIAP so Successful?


Key URL for documents published by NIAP:

What were the important drivers for success?
Funded posts in EPA and Planning Division at local government level to support and help coordinate the relationships and the work of the programme.
Devolution was an important driver as states had to put a policies, guidance and system in place.
Environmental, social and economic problems were also drivers.
The legal and procedures are in place but too early to say how it is working. Anecdotal evidence that yes it is being used. This is likely to be because of the way the material was developed, co-production.
A new generation of young professionals.

BUT some things didn't work e.g. establishing a professional association. 

Transboundary gas pipeline

Learned a lot more than perhaps I taught to Pakistan gas pipeline and environmental professionals. In that sense. a humbling experience.

Range of Transboundary Pipelines

Get the route right and everything else is much easier.

Some EIAs can be too early! 

Often common sense needed. For example the photo above shows a concrete barrier in the middle of a road that cuts across a tortoise migration route.

EIA Guidance for Coal Fired Power Plants

Need to understand the context of Pakistan before the guidance was developed. Portugal is 45th in GDP rankings and Pakistan is 46th but Portugal has only 10 million people compared to 190 million people.

FIRST key question that we asked was why is guidance needed.

Energy scarcity is such that focus was on distribution the limiters energy and that any thing is acceptable anywhere to bring more energy production online. This has generated concern on air pollution.

Water scarcity is also a big issues.

Three different power plant projects being  considered.

Key concern was engaging with communities and stakeholders so that there was ownership of guidance.

Very diverse culture and landscape.

Very complex and complicated country.

Lack of strategic thinking. An SEA of the energy sector or if coal fired power plants is a critical need.

In Pakistan there were 'two' governance and the governance of everything else. Environmental governance is not integrated. So people in environmental governance are strong on environmental protection but the other parts of government are not.

An IAIA Affiliate may be an important way of contouring the work that has already been undertaken.

NIAP EIA Handbook and EIA curriculum for Pakistan

EIA Curriculum challenges in Pakistan were similar to those found in other countries around the world.

National Impact Assessment Program in Pakistan: outcomes and lessons

A range of partners have been involved in supporting EIA system in Pakistan.

Towards a definition of HIA in Italy

HIA implementation at a regional level in Austria

Developed a HIA Action Plan

Then a HIA Development Unit was set up.


Three fold methodology


Leading from the front: HIA in Wales

Devolved government and a focus on health and wellbeing, inequalities, sustainable development...

High levels of poor health in Wales.

Health in All Polices and HIAS by 'stealth' where there is mix of healthy lifestyles priorities alongside HiAP and HIA.

HiAP guidance being developed to operationalise the aims of Future Generations legislation.

BUT will need to monitor and evaluate the success of the bill and guidance.

22 April 2015

Cross-country comparison of quality control in EA

No quality control or assurance instruments implemented in Germany.

Wanted to see what was happening elsewhere.

What are the international trends in EIA and SEA.

4 key words 4 country case studies.





Concluding Questions:

Social determinants of risk perception

Risk perceptions can be biased
Literature review
5 models
Mitigation measures are distorted

Integrated ESHIA often use a risk assessment that categorises impacts in terms of likelihood, severity and significance.
Expert group consensus or judgement is used to determine these aspects.
But is this biased by risk perception.

Can see risk perception as unstable and can move from being amplified to attenuated easy.

Climate change is not seen as a risk but fracking is though experts might say that this should be the other way round.

Information deficit: is IA focused on this when feelings is more important.

Psychometric model
Voluntary vs involuntary

Risk benefit calculation
Economic rationality

Affective vs Analytic thinking
Cognitive biases

Cultural world view
Status anxiety
"White male effects"

Implications are that there are 'merchants of doubt' and 'merchants of fear'.

Expert's risk perception can bias impact assessment.
Need to understand this.